Showing posts with label Islamic-history. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Islamic-history. Show all posts

Khawarij (the Kharijites) and their identities

Khawarij (the Kharijites)

The first misguided group to emerge in Islam was Khawarij (the Kharijites community). Many scholars think that Kharijites appeared in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), but it was at the individual level. Later, in the era of Ali (RA), they appeared openly as a group. They are the worst creatures in the world. They used to recite the Book of Allah, the Qur’an, but they did not have the correct knowledge of the Book of Allah. And they used to talk about Iman (faith) in their mouths, but there was no faith in their hearts.

So I will present to you some valuable information about them which will help you to know a lot about them. And I will not neglect to bring information from reliable books for every subject; Insha Allah. So let’s first know their identities.

Who are Khawarij (the Kharijites community)?

Regarding their identity, Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (Rh) has mentioned in his book that, Khawarij (the Kharijites community) are those who have denied the appointment of the arbitrator of Ali (RA) and have severed ties with him and with ‘Uthman (RA) and his offspring. And those who fought against them (i.e., against Uthman, Ali, and many wise old Companions of Allah’s Messenger). [Fath al-Bari, volume 1, page 459]

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah (Rh) has made their identities more clear and said:

Definition of Khawarij

Khawarij (the Kharijites community) are the people who were the first to declare Muslims disbelievers. They used to call other people disbelievers for sins. They also considered disbelievers those who opposed their innovations and they thought others’ blood and wealth were lawful. [Majmoo’ Al-fataawa, volume 3, page 279] 

When had Khawarij (the Kharijites community) appeared?

They existed in the time of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him). But they kept themselves secret. At that time, their number was very low. In this regard,

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (RA)Ali bin Abi Talib (RA) sent a piece of gold not yet taken out of its ore, in a tanned leather container to Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him). Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) distributed that amongst four Persons: ‘Uyaina bin Badr (RA), Aqra bin Habis (RA), Zaid Al-Khail (RA), and the fourth was either Alqama (RA) or Amir bin at-Tufail (RA). On that, one of his companions said, ‘We are more deserving of this (gold) than these (persons).’ When that news reached the Prophet (peace be upon him), he said, “Don’t you trust me though I am the truth worthy man of the One in the Heavens, and I receive the news of Heaven (i.e. Divine Inspiration) both in the morning and in the evening?”

There got up a man with sunken eyes, raised cheekbones, raised forehead, a thick beard, a shaven head, and a waist sheet that was tucked up and he said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him)! Be afraid of Allah.’ The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Woe to you! Am I not of all the people of the earth the most entitled to fear Allah?” Then that man went away. Khalid bin Al-Walid (RA) said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him)! Shall I chop his neck off?’ The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “No, for he may offer prayers (Salah).”

Khalid (RA) said,

‘Numerous are those who offer prayers and say by their tongues (i.e. mouths) what is not in their hearts.’ Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said, “I have not been ordered (by Allah) to search the hearts of the people or cut open their bellies.” Then the Prophet looked at him (i.e. that man) while the latter was going away and said, “From the offspring of this (man) there will come out (people) who will recite the Qur’an continuously and elegantly but it will not exceed their throats. (They will neither understand it nor act upon it). They would go out of the religion (i.e. Islam) as an arrow goes through a hunting body.” I think he (peace be upon him) also said, “If I should be present at their time, I would kill them as the nations of Thamud were killed.” [Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 4351]

Their spreading

After the death of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) secretly they gradually began to spread. They were scattered in different cities. In the age of the Companions of Allah’s Messenger, they used to express themselves as enjoiners of good deeds and forbidders of evil deeds. Later they came to Medina and killed ‘Uthman (RA). They opposed Ali (RA) and separated from his army. In this connection, Imam Ibn Kathir (Rh) has mentioned in his book that,

“While the people were returning to their homeland from the battle of Siffin, Muawiyah (RA) left for Damascus with his companions. Ali (RA) started going to Kufa city. When he reached the city of Kufa, he heard a man say that Ali had gone to war, and he came back empty-handed. Then Ali (RA) said, Those from whom we are separated are better than these. Then he entered the palace of Kufr to remember the name of Allah Ta’ala. When he approached near to enter the city of Kufa, then about 12,000 men separated from his army. And they were Khawarij. They refused to stay with Ali (RA) in his city, and they moved to a place called Harura. They objected to some things about Ali (RA) that they thought Ali (RA) had performed those things.

So Ali (RA) sent Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) to them to dispel their doubts and misconceptions. Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) discussed with them, debated, and gave correct answers to their unreasonable doubts and misconceptions. Then most of them came back from their erroneous thoughts and doubts. And the rest of the people persisted in their wrong thoughts and erroneous ideology. Then Ali (RA) and his companions fought against the rest of the people (because they oppressed, robbed, and killed many Muslims unjustly).” [Al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya, volume 7, page 278]

Aqidah (Creed) of the Kharijites community

They are divided into different groups. So each group has a different Aqidah. So I am just mentioning some of the basic Aqidah of the Khawarij.

(1) Regarding the sinner who commits a major sin, they think that whoever commits a major sin is a disbeliever. Those who sin and die without repentance will be in Hell forever. Every major sin is Kufr.

(2) Regarding the rulers and the judiciary, they think that it is not lawful for a Muslim ruler to stay in ruling power if he does not follow their principles or if he commits injustice and oppression. It is not permissible to obey such a ruler. It is obligatory to engage in an armed war against him. If a Muslim judge does not judge according to the law of Allah, then he will become a disbeliever. It is permissible to kill him if he does not repent.

(3) Some of them think that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) added many things to the Qur’an on his behalf. Surah Yusuf is not included in the Quran. The previous Prophets also committed Kufr.  

(4) They think that the companions of Allah’s Messenger have also disbelieved. They consider Othman (RA) a disbeliever and an apostate, and they praise his killers. And they declare all the companions of Allah’s Messenger who supported appointing arbitrators as disbelievers and apostates. Verily, they think that Ali (RA), Mu’awiyah (RA), Amr ibn al-As (RA), and Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (RA) are disbelievers too. 

(5) They think that those who commit major sins will not get intercession on behalf of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) in the Hereafter. Intercession will be for the pious only. They also think that one who will be thrown into Hell will be there forever.


(6) Of course, they think that If any one of those who were part of their group left the group, then he is a disbeliever. And those who oppose them are disbelievers.

They think that at present, the words of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) have no existence. And the words of Allah’s Messenger cannot be accepted even if they exist. Only Allah’s words will be accepted. (This Aqidah has been found after research.)

You can read the book Al-Khawarij for more details. The author of the book is Dr. Nasir bin Abdul Karim Al-Aql. Insha Allah, this book will be helpful to everyone. 

What did Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) say about Khawarij?

Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) has said many things about Khawarij. So I am mentioning some hadith about them.

Ali (RA) said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) saying, “In the last days of this world there will appear some young foolish people who will use (in their claim) the best speech of all people (i.e. the Qur’an) and they will abandon Islam as an arrow going through the hunting. Their belief will not go beyond their throats (i.e. they will have practically no belief), so wherever you meet them, kill them, for he who kills them shall get a reward on the Day of Resurrection.” [Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3611]

Narrated by Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (RA) and Anas ibn Malik (RA), The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Soon there will appear disagreement and dissension in my Ummah; there will be people who will be good in speech and bad in work. They recite the Qur’an, but it does not pass their collarbones. And they will go away from the religion (Islam) as an arrow goes away from hunting. They will not return to it till the arrow comes back to its notch. And they are the worst of people and animals.

Happy is

the one who kills them and they kill him. They call to the book of Allah, but they have nothing to do with it. He who fights against them will be nearer to Allah than them (the rest of the people).” The people asked: What is their sign? He (peace be upon him) replied: “They shave the head.” [Sunan Abi Dawud, Hadith No. 4765]

Abu Ghalib (Rh) narrated that Abu Umamah (RA) said: “Those (Khawarij) are the worst of the slain who are killed under Sky, and the best of the slain are those who were killed by them. Those (Khawarij) are the dogs of Hell. Those people were Muslims but they became disbelievers.” So I said: O Abu Umamah, is that your opinion? He said: “Rather I heard it from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).” [Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 176]

Our Dua

Allah Ta’ala gives us the grace to follow His Book Al-Quran and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him) correctly and to keep ourselves and our families away from the misguided group. Ameen.

Abdur Rahman bin Awf (RA.)

Abdur Rahman bin Awf (RA.)

There were many Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). They all loved him (peace be upon him) very much. They were also pioneers in obeying his every command. Of course, they did their best to uphold the religion of Allah. Their main goal was to please Allah. They gave up everything in the world to satisfy him. Verily, Abdur Rahman bin Awf (R) is one of the best companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He did many good works for the religion of Allah, Islam. He was one of them who accepted Islam first. Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) gave him the good news of Paradise while he was still in the world.

So now I will mention some vital information from his biography, which will make his identity clear to you. At the same time, I will try to present some of his contributions to religion that will inspire Muslims to do good deeds. So let’s first know some things about his birth and his identity.

Abdur Rahman bin Awf (R), his birth, and his identity

His name was Abdur Amr in the Pre Islam era. Some say his name was Abdul Kaaba. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) named him Abdur Rahman. His mother’s name is Shefa bint Awf bint Abdul Haris bint Zahara. Some say her name is Shefa bint Abd Manaf bint Zahara bint Kilav. Imam Mada’ini said: Abdur Rahman was born after ten years of the elephant’s year. [Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, page 1500]

Indeed, Abdur Rahman bin Awf (R) was one of the first accepts to Islam. He had a deep friendship with Abu Bakr (R). He accepted Islam at his call.

In the month of Rajab, the fifth year of the Prophethood, the first caravan of eleven men and four women migrated from Mecca to Abyssinia. Abdur Rahman (R) was also among them. Again, after Prophet migrated to Medina, he also relocated to Medina. And those who migrated to two places together, Abyssinia and Madina, are called ‘Sahib Al Hijratain.’ In Medina, Abdur Rahman (R) took refuge in the house of Sa’d Ibn Rabi Al-Khazraji (R),’ and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) established fraternal relations with Abdur Rahman (R) with Sa’d Ibn Rabi (R).

Abdur Rahman bin Awf (R) and His self-reliance

Abdur Rahman bin Awf (R) said, “When we came to Medina as emigrants, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) established a bond of brotherhood between me and Sa’d bin Ar-Rabi (R). Sa’d bin Ar-Rabi`(R) said (to me), ‘I am the richest among the Ansar so that I will give you half of my wealth and you may look at my two wives and whichever of the two you may choose I will divorce her, and when she will complete the prescribed period, then you may marry her.’ `Abdur-Rahman (R) replied, “I do not need all that. Is there any marketplace where trade is practiced?’ He replied, “The market of Qainuqa.”

Abdur Rahman (R) went to that market the following day and brought some cheese and butter, and then he continued going there regularly. A few days later, Abdur Rahman (R) came having traces of yellow on his body. Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) asked him whether he had married. He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘Whom have you married?’ He replied, ‘A woman from the Ansar.’ Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked, ‘How much did you pay her?’ He replied, ‘(I gave her) a gold piece equal in weight to a date seed (or a date seed of gold)! The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘Give a Walima (the wedding banquet) even if with one goat.’ [Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 2048]

Basically, Abdur Rahman bin Awf (R) liked to be self-reliant by working with his own hands. And he continued to do his business. When he deposited some more money in his hand a few days later, he completed his Walima. Gradually his business expanded further.

Donating much wealth to the way of Allah

Abdur Rahman (R) was a rich man. Once in the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him), he gave half of all his wealth to charity and donated 40,000 dinars. Indeed he prepared 500 horses for Jihad in the way of Allah. Then he prepared 500 camels. These are the assets acquired in his business. In one day, he freed 30 slaves. At the time of his death, he bequeathed 400 dinars per person to the Badri Companions. At that time, 100 Badri Companions were alive. Everyone gained 400 dinars. [Al-Esaba, volume 4, page: 291]

Once a large caravan of his came to Medina carrying seven hundred camels loaded with wheat, flour, and other groceries. This vast trade caravan caused quite a stir throughout Medina. When this news reached Ayesha (R), she said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, (peace be upon him) say, ‘Abdur Rahman will crawl and enter Paradise.’ As soon as Abdur Rahman heard this, he came to Ayesha (R) and pleaded, I testify to you, I have given in Waqf this vast caravan of mine and all its products and even everything including camels and its Houdah for Allah Almighty. [Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, volume 7, page: 164]

His struggle in the way of Allah

Abdur Rahman bin Awf (R) served Islam through charity and risked his life to participate in all the battles, including Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, and showed great courage and determination. He was one of the 14 Companions who used themselves as human shields to protect the Prophet (peace be upon him) at the time of the temporary defeat of the Muslims in the battle of Uhud. [At-Tabaqat Kubra, volume 3, page: 95]

In the battle of Uhud, he received more than thirty wounds throughout his body. He was also a pioneer in any field of religion. He took care of the poor and orphans and helped the Muslims in various activities. After the death of the Messenger of Allah, he served and assisted all his wives. Abdur Rahman (R) always feared Allah. Despite being rich, he lived a simple life.

One day, a meal was brought to Abdur-Rahman bin Awf (R) while he was fasting. He said, “Mus’ab bin Umar (R) was martyred, and he was better than me, yet he was shrouded in a Burda (i.e., a sheet) so that if his head was covered (with it), his feet became naked, and if his feet were covered, his head became naked.”

Then he said

“Hamza was martyred, and he was better than me. Then worldly wealth was bestowed upon us, and we were given thereof too much. We are afraid that the reward of our deeds has been given to us in this life.” So Abdur-Rahman (R) then started weeping so much that he left the food. [Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 4045]

Abdur Rahman (R) was one of the members of the advisory council of Caliph Uthman (R). He rendered exceptional services to the Muslim Ummah by advising various vital issues to them. Verily, he was very honest and trustworthy to Abu Bakr (R), Umar (R), Uthman (R), and all believers.

Number of narrated hadiths

He narrated fewer hadiths from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). In his source, there are two hadiths in Sahihain. Imam Bukhari has narrated five hadiths singly. Musnad Al-Baqi contains 65 hadiths. From him, his sons, such Ibrahim, Humaid, Umar, Musab, Abu Salamah, his grandson Miswar, nephew Miswar Ibn Makhrama and Ibn Abbas (R), Ibn Umar (R), Anas bin Malik (R) Etc Companions have narrated Hadith. [Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, page 1494]

His death

During the reign of Uthman (R), Abdur Rahman (R) died in 32 AH. Some say he died in 33 AH at the age of 65. However, according to Ibn Hazar, he lived to be 72 years old. Ibn Hazar also said that ‘Uthman (R) or Zubair ibn al-Awwam (R) led over his funeral salah, and he was buried in the Baqi graveyard in Medina. The eminent Companion Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas (R) was among those who carried his body to the cemetery. [Tarikh Dimashq, volume 35, page: 241]

Allah Ta’ala said: “O you who have believed, shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? (It is that) you believe in Allah and His Messenger and strive in the cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives. That is best for you if you only knew. He will forgive for you your sins and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow and pleasant dwellings in gardens of perpetual residence. That is the great attainment.” [Surah As-Saf, verses 10 – 12]


Abdur Rahman (R) was among them who spent his wealth, his life, his times, and everything in the cause of Allah. And Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said about him, “Verily, you are trustworthy in the people of the heavens and the people of the earth.” [Al-Mustadrak, volume 3, page 310]

Supplication to Allah

May Allah forgive all our sins and include us among them who spent their wealth, life, time, and everything in the way of Allah. O Allah, give us success in this world and the Hereafter. Ameen.

Fasting in Islam and its significance

fasting in islam

One of the acts of worship that Allah Ta’ala has imposed on His servants is fasting. Surely fasting is one of the pillars of Islam. And the importance of fasting in Islam is immense. Verily, Allah’s pleasure can be gained easily through it. Allah Ta’ala has made it obligatory for His Muslim servants to fast for full a month. That month is The month of Ramaḍan. It is one month of Arabic twelve months. It is obligatory to fast on the believers only in this month. And fasting in other months is a Nafl (supererogatory) act. There are many rules and regulations regarding fasting in Islam, also there are many events and histories about it.

Of course, from the time of Adam (A) to the time of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), fasting was one ruling of Allah in the time of all the Prophets and the Messengers (A). And the rule of fasting will remain valid from the time of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) till the Day of Resurrection. Before discussing various aspects of fasting, let’s first know what the meaning of fasting in Islam is.

What is fasting in Islam?

Fasting literally means abstaining from any words or deeds. [Al-Ma’ani al-Ja’mie, 15th-word As-Saum (الصوم)]

The terminological meaning of fasting is:


In the terminology of Shari’ah: fasting is with intention the abstaining of specific things at a certain time of a particular person. [Sharh ‘Umdah al-Fiqh, volume 18, page 3]

The purpose of the particular person is to become a Muslim, an adult person, and a woman who is free from menstruating and free from Nifas (the blood after childbirth). The purpose by a certain time is from Fajr Sadiq (dawn time) until sunset. And the purpose of certain things is which make to break the fasting. (For example: eating, drinking, having sexual intercourse, etc.) [Sharh Muntaha al-Iradat, volume 1, page 469]

The intention is considered a condition for fasting. Therefore, if a person abstains from eating or drinking or from having sexual intercourse without the intention of fasting, then it will not be considered as fasting.

When was fasting obligatory for Muslims?

Before Islam, fasting was commanded in the age of all the Prophets and the Messengers (A). Then Allah Ta’ala has made fasting obligatory upon Muslim servants only for the full month of Ramadan. Verily, it is not obligatory to fast in any month other than the month of Ramadan. And in the second year of Hijri, Allah Ta’ala has made fasting obligatory for the believers. The event of the revelation of the ruling of fast is as follows:-

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came to Madina, He commanded them (the people) to keep fast for three days (every month). Thereafter the Quranic verses concerning the fasts during Ramadan were revealed. (Those verses of the Quran are:)

“O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become Muttaqeen (righteous). (Fasting for) a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey (during them) – then an equal number of other days (are to be kept up fasting). And upon those who are able (to fast, but with hardship) – a ransom (as a substitute) of feeding a poor person (each day). And whoever volunteers good (i.e., excess) – it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.” [Surah Al-Baqarah, verses 183 – 184]

But they were people who were not accustomed to keeping fast; hence keeping the fasts was hard for them; so those who could not keep fast used to feed one indigent (for each fasting).

Then this verse of the Quran is revealed:-

surah baqarah 185

“The month of Ramaḍan (is that) in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights (the moon of) the month (i.e., whoever is present during this month), let him fast it, and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and (Allah wants) for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that (to) which He has guided you, and perhaps you will be grateful.” [Surah Al-Baqarah, verses 185]

So then the concession was granted to the patient (ill person) and Musafir (the traveler); all were commanded to keep fast. [Sunan Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 506]

Narrated Al-Bara (RA); It was the custom among the companions of Muhammad (peace be upon him) that if any of them was fasting and the food was presented (for breaking his fast), but he slept before eating, he would not eat that night and the following day till sunset. (Similarly, if anyone slept before drinking the beverage, or before having sexual intercourse, then was not valid for them to drink or to have sexual intercourse that night and the following day till sunset.)

Qais bin Sirma-al-Ansari (RA)

was fasting and came to his wife at the time of Iftar (breaking one’s fast) and asked her whether she had anything to eat. She (RA) replied, “No, but I would go and bring some for you.” He (Qais bin Sirma-al-Ansari) used to do hard work during the day, So sleep predominated in his two eyes. (As a result, he fell asleep without eating.) When his wife came and saw him, she (RA) said, “Disappointment for you.” When it was midday on the following day, he (RA) fainted and the Prophet (peace be upon him) was informed about the whole matter.

Then the following verses of the Quran were revealed

“It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives (for sexual relations). They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He accepted your repentance and forgave you. So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you (i.e., offspring). And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread (of the night). Then complete the fast until the night (i.e., sunset). And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits (set by) Allah, so do not approach them. Thus does Allah make clear His verses (i.e., ordinances) to the people so they may stay away (from the forbidden things of Allah).” [Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 187]

So, they (the companions of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ) were overjoyed very much by it. [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1915]

What is the purpose of fasting in Islam?

The purpose of fasting is to gain the pleasure of Allah, to abstain from sinful deeds, and to increase Taqwa (fear of Allah) by training oneself to control one’s desires. In this regard, Allah Ta’ala said:

“Decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become Muttaqeen (i.e., who fear Allah’s punishment).” [Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 183]

Fasting creates a state of flexibility in a person so that the person who is fasting does not get angry unjustly at anyone’s provocation. Rather, he makes good behavior when faced with bad behavior from others. He behaves gently even when someone insults or anyone reviles him. Surely, fasting inspires the believer to believe in Allah’s promise and reward. In this regard, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Allah the Exalted and Majestic said: ‘Every act of the son of Adam is for him, except fasting. It is (exclusively) meant for Me and I (alone) will reward it.’ Fasting is a shield. When any one of you is fasting on a day, he should neither indulge in obscene language; nor raise his voice; Or if anyone reviles him or tries to quarrel with him he should say: I am a person fasting. By Him, in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, the breath of the observer of fast will sweeter to Allah on the Day of judgment than the fragrance of musk. The one who fasts has two (occasions) of joy, one when he breaks the fast he is glad with the breaking of (the fast), and one when he meets his Lord he is glad with his fast.” [Sahih Muslim, Hadith No. 1151 d]

There are also other purposes for fasting

Undoubtedly fasting helps enough to realize the suffering of the poor, miserable and indigent people. And it inspires people to extend a helping hand to them. Surely fasting teaches the believer patience, self-purification, self-control, courage, and sincere obedience. The main purpose of fasting is to keep people away from sin and bad deeds.

Therefore, if a person does not continue to try to abstain from sins while fasting, does not refrain from treating people unjustly, and does not take any steps to correct himself, then his fast will not avail him. And surely if anyone fasts to show off people, he will not get any reward. Rather, he will suffer loss in this world and in the Hereafter. Verily, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said:

“There are people who fast and get nothing from their fast except hunger, and there are those who perform Salah and get nothing from their Salah but a sleepless night.” [Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 1690]

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) also said: “Whoever does not give up false statements (i.e. telling lies), and evil deeds, and speaking bad words to others (while fasting), Allah does not need his (fasting) leaving his food and drink (i.e., Allah will not accept his fasting).” [Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 6057]

Our Dua to Allah Ta’ala

May Allah forgive all our sins and mistakes, give us Tawfiq to fast properly, and grant us the grace of abstaining from sin and evil deeds in all time. Ameen.

Ali ibn Abi Talib (R) and his brief identity

Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA)

The fourth Caliph of Islam was Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA). Allah Ta’ala has given him keen intellect and wisdom. He was steadfast on the right path throughout his all life. And he continued to try to guide everyone on the right path until he died. Verily, Allah Ta’ala and His Messenger (peace be upon him) were satisfied with him. He was one of them who got good news of being a resident of Paradise while they were in this world. Of course, Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) always followed the Al-Quran and the sunnah of the Messenger (peace be upon him). And the Khawarij people hurt him a lot because he had called them to follow the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). 

So I will present some information about Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) that will make his identity clear to you. And I will briefly describe some notable things from his biography with reliable references that will help you know a lot. So let’s first start talking about his name and early life.

Who is Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA.)?

His real name is Ali ibn Abi Talib, and his titles are Asadullah and Haider; his surname is Abu Al-Hasan and Abu Turab. And his father’s name is Abu Talib bin Abdul Muttalib, and his mother’s name is Fatima bint Asad. His parents both are of Quraish descent. [Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, volume 2, page 495]

Ali (RA) had three brothers. Their names are Talib, Aqil, and Jafar. They were all older than Ali (RA). Each of them was ten years apart in age. That is, Talib was ten years older than Aqil (RA), Aqil was ten years older than Jafar (RA), and Jafar was ten years older than Ali (RA). And Ali (RA) had two sisters. Their names are Umm Hani (RA) and Jumanah (RA). [Al-Bidayah Wan Nihayah, volume 7, page 222]

Ali (RA) was born in the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia to the Quraish lineage, and he was born ten years before the Prophet (peace be upon him) received his prophethood. He was the cousin of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). His (peace be upon him) uncle Abu Talib was very poor. So the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said to his other uncle Abbas (RA);

O Abbas!

Surely your brother Abu Talib has a large family. And he is falling into famine. Let’s go and lighten the burden on his family. You will take one of his children and I will take one. Then we will take care of them. Abbas said, OK. Then they went to Abu Talib and informed him about this. Abu Talib said to them, “It would have been better if you had left Talib and Aqil for me.”


Then Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) took Ali (Ra) and kept him with him. And Abbas (RA) took Jafar (RA) and kept him with him. So Ali (RA) stayed with Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) until Allah Ta’ala sent him as a prophet. Then Ali (RA) followed the Messenger of Allah, believed in him, and attested to him. And Jafar (RA) stayed with Abbas (RA) until he accepted Islam and became self-sufficient from him. [Sirat Ibn Hisham, volume 1, page 246]

Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA.)’s acceptation Islam

First of all, when the Salah was made obligatory, the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Khadijah (RA) secretly performed two rak’ahs of Salah. Then the next day, Ali (RA) came to the house and saw that they were praying. Then Ali (RA) said, O Muhammad! What is it? Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said, “This is the religion of Allah which He has chosen for Himself. And He has sent His messengers (to the people) with this religion. (O Ali) So I call you to one Allah who has no partner. And I call you to worship Him and to deny Lat and Uzza.”

Then Ali said, It is a matter which I have never heard before today. So I will not make a decision on this matter until I will tell (my father) Abu Talib about it. Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) disliked revealing the secret to Abu Talib before Islam was disclosed openly. So He (peace be upon him) said to Ali, “(O Ali) if you do not accept Islam, then keep it (i.e., the matter of prayer) a secret.”

Then Ali spent that night (in this state).

After that, Allah inserted Islam into Ali’s heart. Then Ali came to the Messenger of Allah in the morning and said, O Muhammad! What do you present to me? Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said to him, “You will bear witness that there is no (worthy of worship) deity but One Allah, and He has no partner. You will deny Lat and Uzza, and you will be free from all rivals.” So Ali (RA) did so and accepted Islam. And Ali (RA) kept his Islam secret for fear of Abu Talib and did not reveal it to anyone. [Al-Bidayah Wan Nihayah, volume 3, page 24]

Verily, Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) was the boy who accepted Islam first among the boys.

His qualities

Ali (RA) was brave and fearless. And he had a deep knowledge of the Quran and Sunnah. He never backed down from the correct justice. He also was a wise judge. And he had many admirable qualities like fear of Allah, purity, shyness, patience, humility, correct justice, forgiveness, etc. Verily, Imam Jalaluddin Al-Suyuti (Rh) has mentioned in his book about Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) that:

“Ali (RA) was one of the ten people who received the good news of Paradise. He was the brother of the Messenger of Allah through brotherhood. By marrying Fatima (RA), the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was her father-in-law. Ali (RA) was one of the first to accept Islam. He was one of the Allah-fearing scholars, famous heroes, notable apathetic people toward worldly matters, and well-known orators. And he was one of those who compiled the Qur’an.” [Tarikh Al-Khulafa, page 130]

He took part in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Bait-e-Rizwan, Khaibar, the conquest of Makkah, Hunayn, Taif, and all the battles with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). However, he could not take part in the battle of Tabuk. Because the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had appointed him as his representative in Medina. He had renowned contributions in all wars. [Tahdhib Al-Asma Wa Al-lughat, volume 1, page 345]

His career

Ali (RA) used to earn halal money through physical labor. Verily, he fought against the enemies of Islam in the way of Allah all his life. By the grace of Allah, he won many battles. The soldiers used to get a share of the Ghanimah after the war, similarly, he also got a share of the Ghanimah. During the time of ruling Umar (RA), he introduced allowances for the soldiers. After the introduction of the allowance system, Ali (RA) also accepted the allowance.

After he became the caliph of the Islamic State, he continued to lead a simple life. He never took a large amount of money from the state treasury. But he used to accept as much as Muslims fixed for him. Imam Ibn Kathir (Rh) has mentioned many events about Ali (RA) in his book. One of them is

al-bidayah-wan-nihayah,-volume-8,-page 3

Marwan bin Antarah narrated from his father that his father said: I came to Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) in a place called Khawarnaq. He was wearing a woolen garment and was shivering in the cold. I said, O Leader of the believers! Surely Allah Ta’ala has made a portion of this wealth (i.e., the wealth of the state treasury) for you and your family. But you are shivering in cold. He said, “By Allah, of course, I do not spend anything out of your wealth unjustly. And this woolen garment; I brought it out of my house or of the Madina.” [Al-Bidayah Wan Nihayah, volume 8, page 3]

What did Allah’s Messenger say about Ali (RA.)?

Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) has said many things about him. So I am quoting some of the sayings of the Messenger of Allah about Ali (RA).

Narrated Salama (RA), Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said during the battle of Khaibar, “I will give the flag (to a man), or tomorrow a man whom Allah and His Messenger love will take the flag,” or said, “(I will give the flag to) a man who loves Allah and His Messenger; and Allah will grant victory under his leadership.” Suddenly came Ali (RA) whom we did not expect. The people said, ‘This is Ali.’ Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) gave him the flag and Allah granted victory under his leadership. [Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3702]

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah (RA), He said; I walked with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) to (the house of) a woman. She slaughtered a goat for us. Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “A man of Paradise must enter (the house).” Then Abu Bakr (RA) entered. After that, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said again, “A man of Paradise must enter (the house).” Then ‘Umar (RA) entered. Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said again, “Surely a man of Paradise will enter (the house). O Allah, if you wish, make him Ali.” Then Ali (RA) entered. [Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihayn, volume 3, page 146]

It was narrated that Zirr said, Ali (RA) said: “The Unlettered Prophet (peace be upon him) made a covenant with me, that none but a believer would love me, and none but a hypocrite would hate me.” [Sunan an-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 5018]

Narrated Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA),

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sent me to Yemen as a judge, and I asked: O Messenger of Allah! are you sending me when I am young and have no knowledge of the duties of a judge? He (peace be upon him) replied: “Allah will guide your heart and keep your tongue true. When two litigants sit in front of you, do not decide till you hear what the other has to say as you heard what the first had to say; for it is best that you should have a clear idea of the best decision.” Ali (RA) said: I had been a judge (for long), or he (RA) said: I have no doubts about a decision afterward. [Sunan Abi Dawud, Hadith No. 3582]

Narrated Abu Sarihah (RA), or Zaid bin Arqam (RA) from the Prophet (peace be upon him), He (peace be upon him) said: “For whoever, I am his Mawla (Guardian) then ‘Ali is his Mawla.” [Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3713]

Wives of Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA.)

He married Fatima (RA), the youngest daughter of the Messenger of Allah. As long as Fatima was alive, he did not get married to another woman. Verily, he earned multiple marriages after her death. Some of them died in his lifetime, and he divorced some of them. And at the time of his death, he had four wives under him.

The names of the women he married after Fatima (RA)’s death are 2. Khawlah bint Ja’far, 3. Laila bint Mas’ud, 4. Umm Al-Banin bint Hijham, 5. Asma bint Umais, 6. Al-Sahba Umm Habib bint Rabi’ah, 7. Umamah bint Abul A’as, 8. Umm Sa’id bint Urwah 9. Muhayyah bint Imrul Qa’is. 

His offspring

Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) had fourteen sons. Their names are: 1. Hasan bin Ali, 2. Husain bin Ali, 3. Ibn Al-Hanafiah Muhammad bin Ali, 4. Ubaidullah bin Ali, 5. Abu Bakr bin Ali, 6. Al-Abbas Al-Kabir bin Ali, 7. Uthman bin Ali, 8. Jafar Al-Kabir bin Ali, 9. Abdullah bin Ali, 10. Muhammad Al-Asghar bin Ali, 11. Yahyah bin Ali, 12. Awun bin Ali, 13. Umar Al-Kabir bin Ali, 14. Muhammad Al-Awsat bin Ali.

Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) had nineteen daughters. Their names are: 1. Zainab Al-Kubra bint Ali, 2. Umm Kulsum Al-Kubra bint Ali, 3. Ruqayah bint Ali, 4. Umm Al-Hasan bint Ali, 5. Ramla Al-Kubra bint Ali, 6. Umm Hani bint Ali, 7. Maymunah bint Ali, 8. Zainab Al-Sugra bint Ali, 9. Ramla Al-Sugra bint Ali, 10. Umm Kulsum Al-Sugra bint Ali, 11. Fatima bint Ali, 12. Umamah bint Ali, 13. Khadiza bint Ali, 14. Umm Al-Kiram bint Ali, 15. Umm Salamah bint Ali, 16. Zumanah bint Ali, 17. Umm Jafar bint Ali 18. Nafisah bint Ali, 19. Ali (RA) had a baby girl whose name is not known. She died before maturity. She’s mother name is Muhayyah bint Imrul Qays.

Ali (RA)’s lineage has spread from only five children. Their name is Hasan, Husain, Ibn Hanafia Muhammad, Abbas Al-Akbar, and Umar Al-Akbar. [At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, volume 3, page 14]

Number of narrated hadiths

Ali (RA) has narrated many hadiths from the Messenger of Allah. In this regard, Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Ibn Sharaf An Nawawi (Rh) has mentioned in his book that,


Ali (RA) has narrated about 586 hadiths from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). Of these, Imam Bukhari (RA) and Muslim (RA) agreed on twenty hadiths (i.e., Imam Bukhari (RA) and Muslim (RA) both have narrated twenty hadiths together). Imam Bukhari (RA) has narrated nine hadiths alone and Imam Muslim (RA) has narrated fifteen hadiths alone. Ali (RA)’s three sons Hasan, Husain and Muhammad ibn Hanafiah, Ibn Mas’ud, Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas, Abu Musa, Abdullah bin Jafar, Abdullah bin Zubair, Abu Saeed, Zayd bin Arkam, Jaber bin Abdullah, Abu Umamah, Suhaib, Abu Rafi, Abu Hurairah, Jaber bin Samurah, Huzaifah bin Usaid, Safina, and others have narrated the hadiths from Ali (RA). [Tahdhib Al-Asma Wa Al-lughat, volume 1, page 345]

Also in the famous hadith book Musnad Ahmad, about 800 hadiths are narrated in his source.

Some of his exhortations

  • Whoever ruins the trust and is satisfied with treachery, surely is free from the piousness.
  • He who is arrogant towards people is humiliated.
  • There are two types of patience. 1. Patience on disliked subjects and 2. patience on liked subjects.
  • The death of a righteous person is peace for himself, and the death of a bad person is peace for people.
  • Two people are never satiated. 1. Knowledge seeker, 2. Resource (money-wealth) seeker.
  • Self-restraint is the beauty of the poor, and gratitude is the beauty of the rich.
  • He who forgets his own sins, thinks the sins of others are large.

When and how did Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA.) die?

Three Khawarij person, Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim, Al Barak bin Abdullah and Amr bin Bukair, gathered in Makkah. They promised each other that they would kill the three Companions of Allah’s Messenger, Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA), Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan (RA), and Amr bin Al-As (RA). Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim said, I will kill Ali (RA),, Al Barak bin Abdullah said, I will kill Muawiyah (RA) and Amr bin Bukair said, I will kill Amr (RA). They also promised each other that they would not back down without doing their action and that they would do this heinous act on the night of the 17th of Ramadan. Then each of them set out for the city where they had their targeted person. Then Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim arrived in Kufa. [Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, volume 2, page 537]

Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim kept the matter of killing Ali a secret from all the Khawarij people in the city of Kufa. Among the Khawarij people came a woman named Katam bint al-Sajnah, who was very beautiful. She used to sit in one corner of the mosque and worship. Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim was impressed by her and proposed marriage to her. The woman demanded him three thousand dirhams, a slave, a maid, and to kill Ali. Then Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim agreed to it. After he married Katam bint al-Sajnah, she repeatedly persuaded him to kill Ali (RA) and hired a man named Wardan as an associate of Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim. Then Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim appointed another person as his collaborator named Shabib bin Najdah.

Shabib at first

refused to be an accomplice of Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim to kill Ali (RA). After persuading him by Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim, he agreed to be his collaborator. Then on the night of the 17th of Ramadan, the three of them, Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim, Wardan, and Shabib bin Najdah, armed with swords and weapons, sit in front of the door through which Ali (RA) used to come out to wake up the people and call them to (Fajr) Salah. Ali (RA) used to say: As-Salah, As-Salah (before the Fajr’s obligatory Salah every day). [Al-Bidayah Wan Nihayah, volume 7, page 326]

Then suddenly two men attacked Ali (RA). One of them hit Ali (RA) and said: Allah’s decision, O Ali! You have no helpers. Then another struck Ali (RA) with a sword. When Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim struck Ali (RA) with his sword, his sword fell from the face to the top of his head. And the sword reached the brain of the head. When Shabib bin Najdah struck Ali (RA) with the sword, the sword did not fall on Ali (RA). Rather it fell on the door. Ali (RA) told the people: Let not handless the man (attacker) definitely. And the people surrounded them on all sides. Wardan was killed while fleeing from their arrest, and Shabib bin Najdah escaped and went out of people’s reach. And Abdur Rahman bin Mulzim was arrested. He was severely punished and put to death.

Ash’as (Rh) said that

Ali was in a severely injured state until Friday and Saturday night. Then he died on Sunday, the 21st of Ramadan in the year 40 AH. Hasan (Rh), Husain (Rh), and Abdullah bin Jafar (Rh) gave him a bath. And he was shrouded in three garments, without any shirt.   

Hasan (RA) led the Funeral Salah of his father Ali (RA). He was buried next to a mosque at Rahbah in Kufa. He was 63 years old at the time of his death. His caliphate period was 4 years and 9 months. [At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, volume 3, page 27]

Our Dua

May Allah Ta’ala gives us all the grace to live our lives according to the Qur’an and Sunnah. And He gives us more grace to keep ourselves away from the evil deeds and keep others away from them. Ameen. 

Uthman ibn Affan (RA), and his brief identity

Uthman ibn Affan (RA)

The third Caliph of Islam was Uthman ibn Affan (RA). He was one of the companions who received the good news of being people of Paradise while still in the world. He also was benevolent and forgiving to every Muslim. Due to this, he did not take any revenge on those who had treated him unfairly. Uthman (RA) was very patient and tolerant. Because of wanting the welfare of others, His opponents ruthlessly had martyred him.

Now I will present some necessary information about him from his biography, which will make his identity clear to you. And I will try to provide reliable references for each subject, Insha Allah. So let’s first start talking about his name and birth.

Who is Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan (RA.)?

Uthman ibn Affan (RA) was a Muttaqee servant and a beloved companion of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him). His real name is Uthman, his title was Zun-Nurain and Zul-Hijratain. In the pre-Islamic era, his title was Abu Amr. And his father’s name is Affan bin Abul A’s bin Umayah, and his mother’s name is Arwa Bint Qariz bin Rabiah. [Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, volume 1, page 149]

He was a descendant of the Umayyah branch of the Quraish dynasty. There is considerable disagreement about the year and date of his birth. According to most, he was born in 576 AD. And according to most descriptions, he was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Moreover, some say, he was born in Taif city. He also was five years younger than the Messenger of Allah. [Fasl Al-khitab fi Al-zhud wa Al-Raqaayq, volume 1, page 466]

His status in the pre-Islamic era

In this regard, Abdus Sattar Al-Shaikh Al-Dimashqi (Rh) has mentioned in his book:-

Abdus Sattar Al-Shaikh

He was a reader and writer in the pre-Islamic era. He then became one of the faithful revelation (الوحى) writers. And this is a rare feature in the society of Makkah. In the same way, in the age of ignorance, he was well educated in the knowledge-science of Arabia. Such as knowledge of poem-proverbs, genealogy, and war. He also traveled to Syria and other cities for business purposes. As a result, he became aware of the condition of the people and their means of subsistence.

Uthman (RA) kept himself away from bad foolish habits and inferior character. So he was endowed with the great virtue of shame which had interrupted him from evil words and evil deeds. He was featured by restraint, truthfulness, conservation of conscience and dignity, purity of heart and hands, refraining from obscenity and from stumbling in spite of youthful vigor. [Uthman bin Affan (RA) extremely shy, the generous, Zu Nurain, page 34]

His accepting Islam

Various information is available about his accepting Islam. According to a source, he accepted Islam with the inspiration of his aunt. She was an astrologer. Her name is Suwda bint Quraiz. She told Uthman (RA) a lot of vital things about the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and His daughter Ruqayyah (RA).

Uthman (RA) said: So one day I was walking down (the street) worried. Then Abu Bakr (RA) met me. So I informed him (the reason for my worry). Abu Bakr (RA) said to me, O ‘Uthman, pity for you! Surely you are a discreet man. Truth and falsehood are not hidden from you. What is your opinion about these statues? Which are worshiped by the people of our community. Aren’t these made of stone? A deaf thing who does not hear (with its ears), does not see (with its eyes), cannot harm anyone, cannot benefit anyone. Uthman (RA) said, “Yes, of course.” By Allah, these are actually like those things. Abu Bakr (RA) said, “By Allah, your aunt must have told you the truth.” This is the Messenger of Allah Muhammad bin Abdullah, whom Allah Ta’ala has sent to all creatures with His message. Will you go to him? [Al Bidaya Wan Nihaya, volume 7, page 199]  

Yazid bin Ruman (Rh) said that one day ‘Uthman bin Affan (RA) and Talha bin Ubaydullah (RA) followed Zubair bin Awwam (RA). Then they entered the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He (peace be upon him) presented Islam to them. He recited the Quran to them, informed them of the rights of Islam, and promised them the honor from Allah. So they believed and they attested (to His words). [Tabaqat Al-kubra Of Ibn Sa’d, volume 3, page 55]

Married life of Uthman ibn Affan (RA.)

Uthman ibn Affan (RA) married Ruqayyah (RA), the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). She gave birth to a son named Abdullah. When Rukaiya (RA) died, then Uthman (RA) married his sister Umme Kulsum (RA). When Umm Kulsum (RA) died, he married Fakhita bint Ghazwan bin Jabir and She gave birth to a son named Abdullah Al-Asghar. Uthman (RA) then married Umm Amar bint Jundub bin Amr. In her womb were born Amr, Khalid, Aban, Umar, and Maryam.

Then he married Fatima bint Walid bin Abd Al Shams. She gave birth to two sons and one daughter. Two sons’ names are Al Walid bin Uthman and Saeed. And the daughter’s name was Umm Saeed. Uthman (RA) then married Umm al-Banin bint Waina bin Hisn. And Abdul Malik bin Uthman was born from her. Then Uthman bin Affan (RA) got married to Ramla bint Shaybah bin Rabi’ah. She gave birth to 3 daughters. Their names are Ayesha, Umm Aban, and Umm Amr.

He then married Nayla bint Al-Furafisa bin Al-Ahwas. A daughter named Maryam bint Uthman was born from her. One of Uthman’s slave women gave birth to a daughter. The girl’s name is Ummul Banin Bint Uthman. [Tabaqat Al-kubra Of Ibn Sa’d, volume 3, page 54]

Remember, under Uthman ibn Affan (RA) were four wives. There were not more than 4 wives together under him.

Number of hadiths narrated in his source

Uthman (RA) was one of the narrators of very few hadiths. He was afraid of the narration of the hadith for fear of being mistaken in it. So not many hadiths have been narrated by Uthman ibn Affan (RA). The Hadith scholars have mentioned that about 146 hadiths have been narrated by him.

His some exhortation

  • The thinking of the world is Maker of darkness in the heart, and the thinking of the Hereafter is Maker of light in the heart.
  • Whoever forsakes the world, Allah loves him, and whoever forsakes sin, the angels love him. Muslims love him too.
  • You try and don’t be indifferent. Because He (Allah) is not indifferent to you.
  • The person who refrains from the greed to anything of Muslims, Muslims love him.
  • I will not take off the clothes that Allah Ta’ala has made to wear me.

How did caliph Uthman ibn Affan (RA.) die?

Every good man has his opponents. In the same way, there were people who opposed Uthman ibn Affan (RA). For various irrational reasons, the people of Egypt, Kufa, and Basrah became against him.

When Uthman (RA) appointed Abdullah bin Sa’ad bin Sarah as the ruler of Egypt, they disliked him for various reasons. The children of some of the Companions formed a party in Egypt and For various irrational reasons, they provoked the people to fight against Uthman (RA) and to agitate against him. Their chiefs were Muhammad bin Abu Bakr and Muhammad bin Abu Huzaifa. They formed an army and started advancing toward Medina. Abdullah bin Sa’ad bin Sarah then wrote a letter to ‘Uthman (RA) regarding the arrival of the rebels in Medina. Uthman ibn Affan (RA) then instructed Ali (RA) to repatriate them to their country before they arrived in Medina. Then Ali (RA) reached a place called Juhfah with many Companions (RA). He resolved various grievances of the rebels. Then he gave them the right understanding and returned them to their country. [Al Bidaya Wan Nihaya, volume 7, page 171 – 172]

Then they returned to Medina again. They laid siege to Medina. Most of them were around Uthman’s house. The companions of Allah’s Messenger told them, again and again, to return to their homeland. Ali (RA) even said to the Egyptians, “After you have left, why did you come back after changing your opinion?” They said: We received a letter from an envoy about killing us when we entered Egypt. And we came to help our other partners.


The companions of Allah’s Messenger said to them, “How did you know about this news?” They said that when they were returning to their country, they found an envoy on the road. They searched him and found a letter from a pot. There was Uthman’s order to kill some people, to crucify some people, and to cut off the hands and feet of some people (of them). The letter had the seal of Uthman (RA). The envoy was a slave to ‘Uthman (RA) and he was riding on Uthman’s camel. So they came to Medina with the letter and started showing it to the people of Medina. People ask the leader of the believers Uthman (RA) about this. He then said,

words of Uthman

“Through this, evidence was presented against me. So by Allah, I didn’t write this letter, I didn’t order to write it to anyone, and I don’t know anything about it. And the thing about the seal is that my seal has been forged.” So the truthful ones confirmed him and the liars denied him. [Al Bidaya Wan Nihaya, volume 7, page 174 – 175]

Then the people realized that it was the work of Marwan bin Hakam, the secretary of Uthman (RA), and they suspected that maybe Marwan was doing fraud in the name of Uthman.

Laying siege

Then, on a Friday, ‘Uthman (RA) was brutally hit by one rebel. The rebels then cordoned off his home. And many of the Companions and his children were engaged in the nursing of ‘Uthman (RA). The blockade lasted for more than a month. Some say 40 days. The rebels demanded that Uthman (RA) relinquish the position of ruler or hand over Marwan bin Hakam to them so that they could punish Marwan. Uthman (RA) feared that if he handed Marwan over to them, they would kill him and that Uthman (RA) would be a reason for killing a Muslim. And Uthman (RA) will not relinquish the position of ruler, he will never take off the clothes that Allah has made to wear him because the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had prohibited him to take off these clothes. So His opponents cut off the water supply to Uthman’s house and prevented him from going to the mosque because He did not comply with their demands. [Al Bidaya Wan Nihaya, volume 7, page 180]

Uthman (RA) could have eliminated them if he wished. And many companions of Prophet (RA) also were ready for elimination to them. But he did not want to shed the blood of any Muslim for himself. He did not want to be the initiator of bloodshed among Muslims too.


This siege continues from the last day of the month of Dhuʻl-Qiʻdah until the 17th of Dhuʻl-Hijjah, Friday. The day before, ‘Uthman (RA) told all the Muhajireen and Ansar Companions who were in his house to leave. But they did not want to leave his house. So He gave the oath to them, and said: “Whoever has a right over me, let him restrain his hand from attacking, let him go to his house.” There were about 700 companions of the Prophet and their many children with him that day. Uthman (RA) told his slaves that those who would keep the sword sheathed (from attacking) were free.

And the reason Uthman (RA) did not resist his enemies was that he had a dream which indicated that his death was imminent. So He surrendered to the command of Allah in the hope of His promises and because of his strong desire to meet the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). [Al Bidaya Wan Nihaya, volume 7, page 181]

In this regard,

Abdullah bin Salam (RA) said,

word of uthman

I came to ‘Uthman (RA) and greeted him while he was under siege. When I approached him, He (RA) said: Welcome. I saw the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in a dream in this small window in the house. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “O ‘Uthman, have they besieged you?” I said: Yes. He (peace be upon him) said, “Have they made you thirsty?” I said: Yes. So He (peace be upon him) gave a bucket full of water. So I drank water and was satisfied. I even felt the cool between my two chests and two shoulders. He (peace be upon him) said to me, “If you wish, you will be helped against them, and if you wish, you can break your fast with us.” So I chose to have Iftar with him.

Ibn ‘Umar (RA) said: Surely Uthman (RA) said to the people in the morning, ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in a dream.’ So he (peace be upon him) said, “O Uthman, break your fast with us.” As a result, Uthman (RA) had become a fasting person in the morning and was killed that day. [Al Bidaya Wan Nihaya, volume 7, page 182]

Ali bin Abu Talib (RA) realized that Uthman’s opponents would kill him, He sternly instructed his two sons, Hasan (RA) and Husain (RA), to guard Uthman (RA). Also, Talha (RA), Zubayr (RA), and some of the Prophet’s companions sent their sons with the same instructions to guard ‘Uthman (RA). They guarded Uthman (RA) strongly.

Attacking and Killing on Uthman ibn Affan (RA.)

One day his rebels resorted to the tactics. They realized the situation and the opportunity and entered the house of ‘Uthman ibn Affan (R) silently. In this regard, Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad bin Abd (Rh) said:

Muhammad bin Abu Bakr entered ‘Uthman’s house through the wall of Amr bin Hazm’s house. Qinanah bin Bishar, Sudan al-Muradi, and Amr bin Hamik was with Muhammad bin Abu Bakr. So they found ‘Uthman (RA) reciting the Qur’an in the Mashaf with his wife Naylah. So Muhammad bin Abu Bakr came forward and grabbed Uthman’s beard and said, “O foolish old man, may Allah humiliate you.” ‘Uthman (RA) said, “I am not a foolish old man.” Rather, I am the servant of Allah and the leader of the believers. Muhammad bin Abu Bakr said, “Mu’awiyah (RA), so-and-so did not come to help you.” Uthman (RA) said, “O nephew, let go of my beard.” What you caught, your father never caught.

Muhammad bin Abu Bakr said to Uthman ibn Affan (RA.),

“You will be intended for more difficult things than my caught.” Then he struck Uthman (RA) on the waist with an arrow. And Qinanah bin Bishar struck Uthman (RA) on the forehead with an iron rod. Sudan al-Muradi hit Uthman (RA) and reached him to murder. And Amr bin Hamik jumped on ‘Uthman (to hit him). In this situation, ‘Uthman was dying. He hit Uthman (RA) 9 times. And he said, “Three blows are for Allah and six blows are for removing the anger of my mind.” [Tarikh Al Islam of Al Zahabi, volume 3, page 131]

Uthman (RA) had kept the door of his house open. He had kept Mushaf in front of him. Then, one by one, the rebels entered the house, beat Uthman (RA) mercilessly, and martyred him.

Al-Azhari (Rh) said: that ‘Uthman was killed during the time of Asr Salah. One of ‘Uthman’s slaves attacked Qinanah bin Bishar and killed him. And Sudan al-Muradi attacked that ‘Uthman’s slave and killed him. And Abu Sa’id (Rh) said: The rebels hit ‘Uthman (RA) so much that’ Uthman’s blood fell on a verse of the Mushaf. The verse was: “Allah will be sufficient for you against them. And He is the Hearing, the Knowing.” [Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 137]

In what year was Uthman ibn Affan (RA.) killed?

Uthman (RA) was killed on Friday the 18th of Dhuʻl-Hijjah in the year 35 AH while fasting. The duration of his caliphate (ruling) was 12 years, less than 12 days. Some said less than 8 days. He was between 82 to 90 years old at the time of his death. Zubair ibn Mut’im (RA) led his Funerals Salah, some say Hakim bin Hizam (RA) led, and some say Marwan. He was buried in the Baqi cemetery next to Hassa Qawqab. Many notable Companions of the Prophet were present at his funeral Salah. For Example, Ali (RA), Talha bin Ubaidullah (RA), Zayed bin Sabet (RA), Ka’ab bin Malek (RA), and other companions. [Al Kamil fi Tareekh of Ibn e Ashir, volume 2, pages 545 – 546]

Our Dua

May Allah Ta’ala grant us the grace to rely on Allah Ta’ala all time, to be patient in adversity situations, and to seek the welfare of others. And may Allah grant us Tawfiq to follow the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) properly.  Ameen.